Ben Otake Born to Run Christopher McDougall Copper Canyon extreme sports Ken Rose Warriors marathon Mexico running Shin Shin Mugendo Tarahumara Tendai

Extreme Running

Like many folks, I consider myself to be a serious amateur athlete. I train in the martial arts around 7 to 10 hours a week and my training includes aerobic and resistance training in addition to learning technique. Having officially reached middle-age last year the limitations to my training regime (other than time and money) are largely related to the increased time it takes my body to recover from injury. An injury, say to my knee, that would have needed a couple of recovery days in my 20s, now may require 2-3 weeks. I have accepted this limitation with equanimity along with accepting the fact that I am growing older. Yet in the back of my mind I want to train more and reach a higher level.

This wish to train harder is reflected in the example of some of my teachers. Sensei Ben Otake, my Karate teacher has reached a pinnacle of perfection in his technique. He has unbelievable economy of movement allowing him to generate incredible strength and speed far beyond karateka half his age. When he was my age he sparred with tigers and bears (I am not making this up!).

My Thai Boxing teacher, and ex-NFL player, Kru Ken Rose is in his late 40s, and looks like he could walk on to a pro-football field tomorrow and play at full tilt. His strength is only matched by the intensity of his workout schedule.

But there is another level of training. Lately, I have been reflecting on two different groups of extreme atheletes, hoping to derive some inspiration for training harder. The first group is the subject of Born to Run, a new book by Christopher McDougall on the Tarahumara of Copper Canyon Mexico. The Tarahumara are desceded from an indigiouness people of Mexico who fled from the Spainsh invasion in the 16th century taking up residence in the extremely remote Copper Canyon region of the Sierra Madre. While related to the Huichol and Yaqui, the Tarahumara have a unique lifestyle centered around extreme long-distance running. It is not unusually for Tarahumara to run 80 or more miles in a day, or to engage in foot races for days at a time, or to run 200-300 miles over the period of a few days. How the Tarahumara accomplish this without suffering the typical sports injuries seen in the developed world has attracted the attention of scientists and extreme athletes from around the world. It seems they have a specific way of running that helps keep them from injury. This technique works in part because the Tarahumara use only the most basic of footwear, essentially running barefoot! This running style is now being adopted by ultra-marathon runners in the west with success. The Tarahumara also seem not to suffer from the typical degenerative diseases of the developed world including, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, etc., while living a party-filled existence fueled by beer, cigarettes, and a high carb diet. The Tarahumara are also peaceful, non-violent, and unfortunately in danger of getting in the way of drug traffickers who covet their remote isolation.

The other group of extreme runners is one that I known about for some time. These are the so-called Marathon Monks of Mt. Hiei, which is near Kyoto, Japan. These monks of the Tendai sect of Buddhism have evolved a religious meditation practice centered on long distance running. Like all other Buddhist meditation practices the purpose of running is to reach a state of enlightenment and to benefit all sentient beings through gaining spiritual merit which is then given away. The marathon monks prepare for years to take on a 1000 day challenge which involves running the equivalent of a marathon every day for months at a time. For about the 1st year the monks run 24 miles a day for 100 consecutive days. In later years the monks running 24 miles a day for 200 consecutive days. In the final years of the challenge the monks increase their daily distance to 37 miles a day for 100 days, and finally to 52 miles a day for 100 days. Only 46 men have completed the 1000 day challenge since 1885. In a quite un-Buddhist fashion, the running monks carry a knife and section of rope while running to remind them of their vow to either commit sepukku (ritual self-disembowelment) or hang themselves if they fail the challenge. The running trails used by the monks are strewn with the graves of past monks who could not finish and supposedly committed suicide on the trail. (Luckily, no monks in recent history have done this). The monks also carry food, candles, Buddhist texts, etc, to make offerings and pray at small forest temples along the way. The Marathon Monks also have a unique style of running that is very relaxed with the eyes focused about 100 feet in front of the runner. Similarly to the Tarahumara, the Marathon Monks use the most primitive of footwear – woven straw sandals. The Marathon Monks also eat a strict vegan diet, even during the challenge.


Barefoot Ted’s Adventures

Davis, J. (downloaded 8-22-09). Tendai Marathon Monks – The Run of A Lifetime. The London Observer.

Hayden, C.J. (2002). Marathon Monks of Mount Hiei (film) color, 57 min. Watertown, MA: Documentary Educational Resources.

McDougall, C. (2008). The Men Who Live Forever”, Men’s Health Magazine April.

McDougall, C. (2009). Born to Run: A Hidden Tribe, Superathletes, and the Greatest Race the World Has Never Seen. NewYork, Knopf.

Minimalist Runners Google Group

Schmid, H.A., (1996). The Spiritual Athlete’s Path to Enlightenment: Ultra Marathon Running. December 11.

Stevens, J. (1988). The Marathon Monks of Mount Hiei. Boston: Shambala.

For more products related to Extreme Running Check out the Bizarre Behavior Store!

By Bizarre Behavior & Culture Bound Syndromes

Dr. Kevin Volkan is a psychologist, writer, and educator with over twenty years of clinical, corporate, and academic experience. He is Professor of Psychology at California State University Channel Islands (CSUCI) and is on the graduate medical Faculty in the Community Memorial Health System. Dr. Volkan was one of the founding faculty at CSUCI which is the 23rd campus in California State University system where he teaches a course on atypical psychopathologies titled Bizarre Behaviors and Culture-Bound Syndromes. This course explores the outer range of extreme human behavior including paraphilias and was the inspiration for this blog. Consonant with his interest in deviant psychopathologies he also teaches clinical psychology and a course on the psychology of Nazi Germany and the Holocaust. Dr. Volkan has been a Silberman Seminar Fellow at The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC in 2010 and 2014. Before coming to CSUCI, Dr. Volkan was a faculty member at Harvard Medical School where he researched ways to measure medical student and physician performance, and the psychological origins of medical error. While at Harvard, Dr. Volkan also taught for the prestigious Harvard-Macy Institute, a joint program run by the Harvard Business, Education, and Medical schools. In this program he taught medical students and physicians from Harvard as well as from all over the world. Dr. Volkan’s background in psychology is varied and he maintains an active interest in several psychological approaches to understanding human nature – including socio-biological, psychoanalytic, psychometric, and cognitive-behavioral. He has had a long-standing interest in the psychology of compulsive drug use (which has similarities to the psychology of paraphilias), and has published a book on the subject. Dr. Volkan worked as a clinical psychologist for many years. This experience included serving as staff psychologist and Vice Chair of psychology at Agnews State Hospital in San Jose. During his tenure at Agnews, Dr. Volkan worked with patients who demonstrated many severe behavioral problems, including profoundly autistic, psychotic, self-injurious, and developmentally disabled individuals. Dr. Volkan was awarded the Sustained Superior Accomplishment Award from the State of California for his clinical work. In addition to his hospital work, Dr. Volkan also maintained a private practice in psychology in the San Francisco Bay Area. He served as a psychologist for the California Victim Witness program, seeing patients who were victims of crime and/or abuse. Dr. Volkan’s clients included a diverse population of people representing a wide variety of socioeconomic strata and psychological distress. Dr. Volkan received a BA in Biology from the University of California, an MA in Psychology from Sonoma State University, an EdD in Educational Psychology from Northern Illinois University, a PhD in Clinical Psychology from The Center for Psychological Studies, and a MPH in Public Health from Harvard University. In his spare time he practices martial arts and plays guitar in a rock band.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s